Islam is the second-most widely professed religion in France behind Christianity. France has one of the largest number of Muslims in the Western world primarily due to migration from North African , West African , and Middle Eastern countries. A Pew Research report estimates the Muslim population of France to be 5, or 8. The majority of Muslims in France belong to the Sunni denomination. The vast majority of French Muslims are of immigrant origin, while an estimate are converts to Islam of indigenous ethnic French background. The French overseas region of Mayotte has a majority Muslim population.
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Muslim immigrationmostly male, was high in the late s and s. The immigrants came primarily from Algeria and other North African colonies; however, Islam has an older history in France, since the Great Mosque of Paris was built inas a sign of recognition from the French Republic to the fallen Muslim tirailleurs mainly coming from Algeria, in particular at the battle of Verdun and the take-over of the Douaumont fort.
Though the French State is secular, in recent years the government has tried to organize a representation of the French Muslims. Though the CFCM is informally recognized by the national government, it is a private nofireemblemheroestips.comofit association with no special legal status. The first generation of Muslim immigrants, who are today mostly retired from the workforce, keep strong ties with their countries, where their families lived.
In the government passed a law allowing families of these immigrants to settle; thus, many children and wives moved to France. Most immigrants, realizing that they couldn't or didn't want to return to their homelan asked for French nationality before quietly retiring. However, many live alone in housing projectshaving now lost their ties with their countries of origin. Olivier Roy indicates that for first generation immigrants, the fact that they are Muslims is only one element among others.
Their identification with their country of origin is much stronger: they see themselves first through their descent AlgeriansMoroccansTunisiansetc. The false [ citation needed ] claim is brought up in American immigration discourse that a third of newborns in France have Muslim parents. Others are from Sub-saharan Africa 9. About 4 million of them are of Maghrebi origin.
They practice prayer salatand most observe the fast of Ramadan and most do not eat pork while many do not drink wine. Rachel Brown shows that some Muslims in France alter some of these religious practices, particularly food practices, as a means of showing "integration" into French culture. Some Muslims the UOIF for example request the recognition of an Islamic community in France which remains to be built with an official status.
Inthere were about 2, Muslim places of worship in France.
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Since publicly funded State schools in France must be secularowing to the separation of Church and StateMuslim parents who wish their children to be educated at a religious school often choose private and therefore fee-paying, though heavily subsidised Catholic schools, of which there are many.
Few specifically Muslim schools have been created.
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Unlike most private schools in the United States and the UKthese religious schools are affordable for most parents since they may be heavily subsidised by the government teachers' wages in particular are covered by the State. In November in the aftermath of the Paris attacksFrench authorities for the first time closed three mosques with extremist activities and radicalisation being given as the reason. The mosques were located in Lagny-sur-MarneLyon and Gennevilliers.
The deadly attacks in in France changed the character of Islamist radicalization from a security threat to constitute a societal problem. In French authorities reported that of the Islamic prayer halls were disseminating salafist ideas and 20 mosques were closed due to findings of hate speech. InEU anti-terror coordinator Gilles de Kerchove estimated there to be 17 radicalized Muslims and jihadists living in France.
InFrench intelligence services monitored around individuals with suspected ties to radical Islamism. France has sentenced a large number of individuals for terrorist-related offences which has increased the prison population.
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In Februaryauthorities in Grenoble closed the Al-Kawthar mosque for six months due to it propagating a "radical islamist ideology". The Al-Kawthar mosque had about regular visitors.
In several of the sermons, the imam legitimised armed jihad, violence and hatred towards followers of other religions anti-republican values and promoted Sharia law.
In the - timespan in France, people been killed in terrorist attacks and wounded in a total of 22 terrorist attacks. Several studies have concluded that France is the Western country where Muslims integrate the best and feel the most for their country, and that French Muslims have the most positive opinions about their fellow citizens of different faiths.
A study from the Pew Research Center on Integration is one such study. In April an Algerian Muslim woman refused to shake hands with the official on religious grounds. As an applicant must demonstrate being integrated into society as well as respect for French values, officials considered her not integrated and denied her citizenship application.
Other examples of discrimination against Muslims include the desecration of French Muslim graves near Arras.
A pig's head was hung from a headstone and profanities insulting Islam and Muslims were daubed on some graves. Except for Poland, all of those had recently suffered jihadist terror attacks or been at the centre of a refugee crisis.
Furthermore, although Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy claimed that most rioters were immigrants and already known to the police, the majority were, in fact, previously unknown to the police. The wearing of hijab in France has been a very controversial issue since The debate essentially concerns whether Muslim girls who choose to wear hijab may do so in state schools. A secondary issue is how to protect the free choice and other rights of young Muslim women who do not want the veil, but who may face strong pressure from families or traditionalists.
Similar issues exist for civil servants and for acceptance of male Muslim medics in medical services. Inthe French Ministry for Education sent out recommendations to teachers and headmasters to ban Islamic veil in educational institutions.
Job Dating virtuel de l'Alternance Share Job Dating virtuel de l'Alternance with your friends. Save Job Dating virtuel de l'Alternance to your collection. Islam is the second-most widely professed religion in France behind Christianity. France has one of the largest number of Muslims in the Western world primarily due to migration from North African, West African, and Middle Eastern countries. A Pew Research report estimates the Muslim population of France to be 5, or of the total population. La chambre d'agriculture, la direction de l'agriculture de l'alimentation et de la foret (DAAF) organisent trois matinees de l'emploi agricole les 12, 19 et 26 juin avec les partenaires.
According to a study by the Institute of Labor Economics, more girls with a Muslim background born after graduated from high school after the restrictions were introduced. While secularism is often criticized for restricting freedom of religion, the study suggested that "public schools ended up promoting the educational empowerment of some of the most disadvantaged groups of female students".
Leila Babes in her book "The Veil Demystified", believe that wearing the veil does not derive from a Muslim religious imperative. In DecemberPresident Jacques Chirac said that it breaches the separation of church and state and would increase tensions in France's multicultural society, whose Muslim and Jewish populations are both the biggest of their kind in Western Europe.
The issue of Muslim hijabs has sparked controversy after several girls refused to uncover their heads in class, as early as In December, a first ministerial circular circulaire Jospin was published, stating teachers had to decide on a case-by-case basis whether to ban the wearing of Islamic headscarf.
In Septembera third ministerial circular circulaire Bayrou was published, making a distinction between "discreet" symbols to be tolerated in public schools, and "ostentatious" symbols, including the Islamic headscarf, to be banned from public schools.
The law was approved by parliament in March Items prohibited by this law include Muslim hijabsJewish yarmulkes or large Christian crosses. Two French journalists working in Iraq, Christian Chesnot and Georges Malbrunot were taken hostage by the "Islamic Army in Iraq" an Iraqi resistance militant movement under accusations of spying.
Threats to kill the two journalists if the law on headscarves was not revoked were published on the Internet by groups claiming to be the "Islamic Army in Iraq". The two journalists were later released unharmed. A Muslim group spokesman expressed serious concern over the proposed legislation, noting that "even if they ban the burqa, it will not stop there," adding that "there is a permanent demand for legislating against Muslims.
On 25 January it was announced that the parliamentary committee, having concluded its study, would recommend that a ban on veils covering the face in public locations such as hospitals and schools be enacted, but not in private buildings or on the street. In FebruaryDecathlon, Europe's largest sports retailer, announced plans to begin selling a sports hijab in their stores in France. Decathlon had begun selling the product in Morocco the previous week but was met with lots of criticism in regards to the plan.
The move was quickly criticized all over social media, with several politicians expressing discomfort with the product being sold.
Multiple salespeople were threatened physically in stores. The company also received hundreds of calls and emails in regards to the product. Decathlon was forced to backtrack and has since halted their plans to sell the sports hijab.
Formal as well as informal Muslim organisations help the new French citizens to integrate. There are no Islam-based political parties, but a number of cultural organisations. Their most frequent activities are homework help and language classes in Arabic, ping pong, Muslim discussion groups etc. However, most important associations active in assisting with the immigration process are either secular GISTI, for example or ecumenist such as the protestant -founded Cimade.
The aim of the CFCM like its Jewish and protestant counterparts is to discuss religious problem with the state, participate in certain public institutions, and organise the religious life of French Muslims. It is the only official instance of the French Muslims. In a new council was elected.
It is a very broad and young organisation and there is a beginning of consensus on major issues. Other elections took place since then, the latest was due in but is still pending. Other organizations exist, such as PCM Muslim Participation and Spiritualitywhich combine political mobilization against racism, sexism etc. They do not have clear-cut political positions as such, but push for active citizenship.
They are vaguely on the left in practice. The government has yet to formulate an official policy towards making integration easier.
As mentioned above, it is difficult to determine in France who may be called a Muslim. Some Muslims in France describe themselves as "non-practicing". Most simply observe Ramadan and other basic rules, but are otherwise secular.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Islam in France Grand MosqueParis. Main articles: Septimania and Franco-Ottoman alliance. See also: Social situation in the French suburbs. Further information: French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools and Islamic scarf controversy in France. Evoluer professionnellement. Trouver un stage. Droits et devoirs du stagiaire. Conseils aux recruteurs.
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