Are mistaken. cuneiform dating commit error

Weakening of this ancient flourishing Mediterranean world shifted the political and economic centres of gravity away from the Levant towards Classical Greece and Rome, and led, in the long term, to the emergence of the modern western civilizations. Textual evidence from cuneiform tablets and Egyptian reliefs from the New Kingdom relate that seafaring tribes, the Sea Peoples, were the final catalyst that put the fall of cities and states in motion. However, the lack of a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology for the Sea People event has led to a floating historical chronology derived from a variety of sources spanning dispersed areas. Here, we report a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology with anchor points in ancient epigraphic-literary sources, Hittite-Levantine-Egyptian kings and astronomical observations to precisely date the Sea People event. By confronting historical and science-based archaeology, we establish an absolute age range of - BC for terminal destructions and cultural collapse in the northern Levant. This radiocarbon-based archaeology has far-reaching implications for the wider Mediterranean, where an elaborate network of international relations and commercial activities are intertwined with the history of civilizations.

Cuneiform tablets foreshadowing the fall of the thriving coastal city Ugarit [2]and reliefs from Ramses III's mortuary temple at Medinet Habou depicting a chaotic scene of boats and warriors entwined in battle in the Nile delta [11]attest that vast movements of seafaring and inland tribes, the Sea Peoples [12] or Land and Sea Peopleslie at the heart of changes for this period. The Sea Peoples were seaborne foes [13][14][15] from different origins [6][12].

They launched a combined land-sea invasion Fig. The Sea Peoples symbolize the last step of a long and complex spiral of decline in the ancient Mediterranean world [2][3][4][5]. Cuneiform tablets from Ugarit provide an impressive glimpse of the frantic preparations which the city and her neighbours pursued, in vain, to ward against the invasions [2]. Within the conventional view, the Sea Peoples are linked in history to the collapse of the Late Bronze Age cultures [4]and BC stands as a symbolic date in human civilization.

Some of the major cities impacted by the raids are denoted with historical dates. Inland invasions are represented by purple arrows. Whereas the Sea People event constitutes a major turning point in ancient world history, attested by both written and archaeological e. Ugarit, Enkomi, Kition, Byblos evidence, our knowledge of when these waves of destructions occurred rests on translation of cuneiform tablets preceding the invasions terminus ante quem and on Ramses III's reign terminus post quem.

Here, we report the first absolute chronology of the invasion from a rare, well-preserved Sea People destruction layer Fig.

Jun 08,   Textual evidence from cuneiform tablets and Egyptian reliefs from the New Kingdom relate that seafaring tribes, the Sea Peoples, were the final catalyst that put the fall of cities and states in motion. However, the lack of a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology for the Sea People event has led to a floating historical chronology derived Cited by: The term "cuneiform" is very deceptive, in that it tricks people into thinking that it's some type of writing system. The truth is that cuneiform denotes not one but several kinds of writing systems, including logosyllabic, syllabic, and alphabetic scripts. In fact, "cuneiform" . Assyrian cuneiform writing dating to - BCE. Today she's a cuneiform scholar, able to take a tablet thousands of years old, whose uneven surface is pockmarked by wedge shapes, and find in it the stunning poetry of the Epic of Gilgamesh.

The destruction layer contains remains of conflicts bronze arrowheads scattered around the town, fallen walls, burnt housesash from the conflagration of houses, and chronologically well-constrained ceramic assemblages fragmented by the collapse of the town.

This stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology, with anchor points in ancient epigraphic-literary sources, Hittite-Levantine-Egyptian kings and astronomical observations, was used to precisely date the Sea People invasion in northern Levant, a decisive episode in a long-term collapse of the ancient Eastern Mediterranean world.

By confronting historical and science-based archaeology, the data offer the first firm chronology for this key period in human society.

The picture B shows the Sea People destruction layer with ashes, stone rubbles from fallen walls, and ceramic fragments. Sample collection for radiocarbon 14 C dating of the Sea People event was performed at the harbour town Gibala [17][18][19]a thriving Levantine trade center located at the southernmost edge of the powerful Ugarit kingdom [20][21]. Direct access from the Mediterranean to the Syrian heartland, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia afforded the ports of the Ugarit kingdom their wealth.

This strategic position sets the chronology obtained for the destruction of Gibala by the Sea Peoples in a Mediterranean-wide perspective for the end of the Late Bronze Age Fig.

The place name Gibala appears on two 14 th century BC cuneiform tablets from Ugarit [17]. The written Bronze Age sources or epigraphic finds for Gibala cease as soon as Ugarit was destroyed by the Sea Peoples. S1 Supporting Information S1. A stable water supply, provided by the northern Rumailiah River and the southern Ain Fawar spring-complex, may explain resettlements on the Gibala's alluvial plain since the Early Iron Age [10].

Writing Cuneiform

The widespread ash layer, termed Level 7A, contained rich finds Fig. White slip II highly significant for the Sea People event in the ancient Mediterranean world [17][18]. Short-lived samples and young branches found in the destruction debris from eight key loci Fig. S2 were dated by accelerator mass spectrometry AMS. Calibrated age ranges in details at Hence, there are two chronological possibilities for the calibrated date of the destruction Level 7A, between the end of the 13 th century and the beginning of the 12 th century BC or the first half of the 12 th century BC.

By contrasting historical-archaeological and radiocarbon-based data sets, the best candidate for the destruction date of the harbour town is the Sea People invasion. Their presence immediately after the destruction of Gibala is indicated by the material culture of the new settlements on the Tell namely the appearance of Aegean-type architecture, locally-made Mycenaean IIIC Early pottery, hand-made burnished pottery, and Aegean-type loam-weights.

These materials, also known from Philistine settlements [24]are cultural markers of foreign settlers, most probably the Sea Peoples.

Ceramics and arrowheads were retrieved from the destruction Level 7A. The 14 C weighted average value and calibrations provide a robust chronological framework for the Sea People event.

The horizontal scale is in historical years BC. The vertical scale is in conventional radiocarbon years BP. The internal consistency of the typical imported ceramic assemblage found in the destruction layer Fig. All the Mycenaean imports ended in the region of the Ugarit kingdom with its destruction by the Sea Peoples who interrupted trade routes.

Oct 23,   Archaeologists have made sensational finds in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq. The researchers found a cuneiform archive of 93 clay tablets dating from BCE Apr 10,   License. Uploaded by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin, published on 10 April under the following license: Creative Commons fireemblemheroestips.com license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. What does cuneiform mean? cuneiform is defined by the lexicographers at Oxford Dictionaries as Denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used .

These letters demonstrate that Ugarit was still a kingdom at the very end of the 13 th century BC but also relate that its territory was threatened by seaborne and land invasions Fig. The cuneiform tablet RS A document from Egypt relating the execution of Bay as a traitor in Siptah's regnal year 5, states that the cuneiform tablet RS The radiocarbon results, in relation to archaeological and historical data, lead us to propose a date of - BC for the Sea People event in the northern Levant.

This radiocarbon-based archaeological date can be refined with the astronomical observation related on the cuneiform tablet KTU 1. The sun eclipse depicted on the cuneiform tablet KTU 1. The date of - BC for the Sea People invasions in the northern Levant, and the end of the ancient Eastern Mediterranean world fits the radiocarbon, historical, archaeological and astronomical data. Our research suggests that the traditional Egyptian date for the decline of the ancient Mediterranean world, based on sources from Ramses III's reign, only corresponds to the final part of a more complex and longer-term event that intensified after BC with the first written evidence of food shortage [6][7][8].

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By a combined use of radiocarbon, archaeological and historical data, the first firm date of - BC is proposed for the terminal destruction and disintegration of Late Bronze Age societies in the Northern Levant.

The collapse caused by the Sea Peoples marks a historical watershed and from these crisis years arose a new world. Later, the Greeks narrated and heroised this period with the myths and stories on the fall of Troy Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. British Museum. Early cuneiform inscription used simple linear inscriptions, made by using a pointed stylus, sometimes called "linear cuneiform", before the introduction of new wedge-type styluses with their typical wedge-shaped signs.

In the mid-3rd millennium BC, a new wedge-tipped stylus was introduced which was pushed into the clay, producing wedge-shaped "cuneiform" signs; the development made writing quicker and easier, especially when writing on soft clay. Many of the clay tablets found by archaeologists have been preserved by chance, baked when attacking armies burned the buildings in which they were kept.

The script was also widely used on commemorative stelae and carved reliefs to record the achievements of the ruler in whose honor the monument had been erected. The spoken language included many homophones and near-homophones, and in the beginning, similar-sounding words such as "life" [til] and "arrow" [ti] were written with the same symbol.

After the Semites conquered Southern Mesopotamia, some signs gradually changed from being pictograms to syllabogramsmost likely to make things clearer in writing.

In that way, the sign for the word "arrow" would become the sign for the sound "ti". Words that sounded alike would have different signs; for instance, the syllable "gu" had fourteen different symbols.

When the words had a similar meaning but very different sounds they were written with the same symbol. For instance "tooth" [zu], "mouth" [ka] and "voice" [gu] were all written with the symbol for "voice".

To be more accurate, scribes started adding to signs or combining two signs to define the meaning. They used either geometrical patterns or another cuneiform sign. As time went by, the cuneiform got very complex and the distinction between a pictogram and syllabogram became vague. Several symbols had too many meanings to permit clarity. Therefore, symbols were put together to indicate both the sound and the meaning of a compound.

Two phonetic complements were used to define the word [u] in front of the symbol and [gu] behind. This change first occurred slightly before the Akkadian period, at the time of the Uruk ruler Lugalzagesi r. Written Sumerian was used as a scribal language until the first century AD. The spoken language died out around the 18th century BC. The archaic cuneiform script was adopted by the Akkadian Empire from the 23rd century BC short chronology.

The Akkadian language being Semiticits structure was completely different from Sumerian. The Semitic languages employed equivalents for many signs that were distorted or abbreviated to represent new values because the syllabic nature of the script as refined by the Sumerians was not intuitive to Semitic speakers. At this stage, the former pictograms were reduced to a high level of abstraction, and were composed of only five basic wedge shapes: horizontal, vertical, two diagonals and the Winkelhaken impressed vertically by the tip of the stylus.

The signs exemplary of these basic wedges are:. Except for the Winkelhaken which has no tail, the length of the wedges' tails could vary as required for sign composition. Most later adaptations of Sumerian cuneiform preserved at least some cts of the Sumerian script. Written Akkadian included phonetic symbols from the Sumerian syllabarytogether with logograms that were read as whole words. Many signs in the script were polyvalent, having both a syllabic and logographic meaning.

The complexity of the system bears a resemblance to Old Japanesewritten in a Chinese-derived script, where some of these Sinograms were used as logograms and others as phonetic characters.

This "mixed" method of writing continued through the end of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires, although there were periods when "purism" was in fashion and there was a more marked tendency to spell out the words laboriously, in preference to using signs with a phonetic complement. Yet even in those days, the Babylonian syllabary remained a mixture of logographic and phonemic writing. Hittite cuneiform is an adaptation of the Old Assyrian cuneiform of c.

When the cuneiform script was adapted to writing Hittite, a layer of Akkadian logographic spellings was added to the script, thus the pronunciations of many Hittite words which were conventionally written by logograms are now unknown. In the Iron Age c.

From the 6th century, the Akkadian language was marginalized by Aramaicwritten in the Aramaean alphabetbut Neo-Assyrian cuneiform remained in use in the literary tradition well into the times of the Parthian Empire BC- AD.

The last known cuneiform inscription, an astronomical text, was written in 75 AD. The complexity of the system prompted the development of a number of simplified versions of the script.

Old Persian was written in a subset of simplified cuneiform characters known today as Old Persian cuneiformdeveloped by Darius the Great in the 5th century BC. This almost purely alphabetical form of the cuneiform script 36 phonetic characters and 8 logogramswas specially designed and used by the early Achaemenid rulers from the 6th century BC.

Ugaritic was written using the Ugaritic alphabeta standard Semitic style alphabet an abjad written using the cuneiform method. For centuries, travelers to Persepolislocated in Iranhad noticed carved cuneiform inscriptions and were intrigued. In the 15th century, the Venetian Giosafat Barbaro explored ancient ruins in the Middle East and came back with news of a very odd writing he had found carved on the stones in the temples of Shiraz and on many clay tablets.

Antonio de Gouveaa professor of theology, noted in the strange writing he had had occasion to observe during his travels a year earlier in Persia which took in visits to ruins. He also guessed, correctly, that they represented not letters or hieroglyphics but words and syllables, and were to be read from left to right. Carsten Niebuhr brought the first reasonably complete and accurate copies of the inscriptions at Persepolis to Europe in One word, which occurs without any variation towards the beginning of each inscription, he correctly inferred to signify "king".

With this clue in his hand, he identified and published an alphabet of thirty letters, most of which he had correctly deciphered. According to Sayce, whatever his obligations to Burnouf may have been, Lassen's.

He succeeded in fixing the true values of nearly all the letters in the Persian alphabet, in translating the texts, and in proving that the language of them was not Zen but stood to both Zend and Sanskrit in the relation of a sister.

Carved in the reign of King Darius of Persia - BCthey consisted of identical texts in the three official languages of the empire: Old PersianAkkadian and Elamite. The Behistun inscription was to the decipherment of cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone was to the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Rawlinson correctly deduced that the Old Persian was a phonetic script and he successfully deciphered it. Inhe finished his copy of the Behistun inscription, and sent a translation of its opening paragraphs to the Royal Asiatic Society. Before his article could be published, however, the works of Lassen and Burnouf reached him, necessitating a revision of his article and the postponement of its publication. Then came other causes of delay.

Inthe first part of the Rawlinson's Memoir was published; the second part did not appear until After translating the Persian, Rawlinson and, working independently of him, the Irish Assyriologist Edward Hincksbegan to decipher the others.

The Sea Peoples, from Cuneiform Tablets to Carbon Dating

The actual techniques used to decipher the Akkadian language have never been fully published; Hincks described how he sought the proper names already legible in the deciphered Persian while Rawlinson never said anything at all, leading some to speculate that he was secretly copying Hincks.

Among the treasures uncovered by Layard and his successor Hormuzd Rassam were, in an the remains of two libraries, now mixed up, usually called the Library of Ashurbanipala royal archive containing tens of thousands of baked clay tablets covered with cuneiform inscriptions. ByHincks and Rawlinson could read Babylonian signs.

Inthe four men met in London and took part in a famous experiment to test the accuracy of their decipherments. Edwin Norristhe secretary of the Royal Asiatic Societygave each of them a copy of a recently discovered inscription from the reign of the Assyrian emperor Tiglath-Pileser I.

A jury of experts was impaneled to examine the resulting translations and assess their accuracy. In all essential points, the translations produced by the four scholars were found to be in close agreement with one another. There were, of course, some slight discrepancies. The inexperienced Talbot had made a number of mistakes, and Oppert's translation contained a few doubtful passages which the jury politely ascribed to his unfamiliarity with the English language.

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But Hincks' and Rawlinson's versions corresponded remarkably closely in many respects. The jury declared itself satisfied, and the decipherment of Akkadian cuneiform was adjudged a fait accompli.

In the early days of cuneiform decipherment, the reading of proper names presented the greatest difficulties. However, there is now a better understanding of the principles behind the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names found in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions, literary productions, and legal documents. The primary challenge was posed by the characteristic use of old Sumerian non-phonetic logograms in other languages that had different pronunciations for the same symbols.

Until the exact phonetic reading of many names was determined through parallel passages or explanatory lists, scholars remained in doubt or had recourse to conjectural or provisional readings. However, in many cases, there are variant readings, the same name being written phonetically in whole or in part in one instance and logographically in another. Cuneiform has a specific format for transliteration.

Because of the script's polyvalencetransliteration requires certain choices of the transliterating scholar, who must decide in the case of each sign which of its several possible meanings is intended in the original document. For example, the sign DINGIR in a Hittite text may represent either the Hittite syllable an or may be part of an Akkadian phrase, representing the syllable ilit may be a Sumerogramrepresenting the original Sumerian meaning, 'god' or the determinative for a deity.

In transliteration, a different rendition of the same glyph is chosen depending on its role in the present context. This is still easier to read than the original cuneiform, but now the reader is able to trace the sounds back to the original signs and determine if the correct decision was made on how to read them. A transliterated document thus presents the reading preferred by the transliterating scholar as well as an opportunity to reconstruct the original text.

There are differing conventions for transliterating Sumerian, Akkadian Babylonianand Hittite and Luwian cuneiform texts. One convention that sees wide use across the different fields is the use of acute and grave accents as an abbreviation for homophone disambiguation.

Thus, u is equivalent to u 1the first glyph expressing phonetic u. In Sumerian transliteration, a multiplication sign 'x' is used to indicate typographic ligatures. As shown above, signs as such are represented in capital letterswhile the specific reading selected in the transliteration is represented in small letters.

Thus, capital letters can be used to indicate a so-called Diri compound - a sign sequence that has, in combination, a reading different from the sum of the individual constituent signs for example, the compound IGI. In a Diri compound, the individual signs are separated with dots in transliteration.

BABBAR - Sumerian for "silver" - being used with the intended Akkadian reading kaspum"silver"an Akkadogram, or simply a sign sequence of whose reading the editor is uncertain. Naturally, the "real" reading, if it is clear, will be presented in small letters in the transliteration: IGI.

A will be rendered as imhur 4. Since the Sumerian language has only been widely known and studied by scholars for approximately a century, changes in the accepted reading of Sumerian names have occurred from time to time. Thus the name of a king of Urread Ur-Bau at one time, was later read as Ur-Engurand is now read as Ur-Nammu or Ur-Namma; for Lugal-zage-sia king of Uruksome scholars continued to read Ungal-zaggisi ; and so forth.

Also, with some names of the older period, there was often uncertainty whether their bearers were Sumerians or Semites. If the former, then their names could be assumed to be read as Sumerian, while, if they were Semites, the signs for writing their names were probably to be read according to their Semitic equivalents, though occasionally Semites might be encountered bearing genuine Sumerian names.

There was also doubt whether the signs composing a Semite's name represented a phonetic reading or a logographic compound. Thus, e. The tables below show signs used for simple syllables of the form CV or VC.

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As used for the Sumerian language, the cuneiform script was in principle capable of distinguishing at least 16 consonants, [73] [74] transliterated as. The Sumerian cuneiform script had on the order of 1, distinct signs or about 1, if variants are included. This number was reduced to about by the 24th century BC and the beginning of Akkadian records.

Not all Sumerian signs are used in Akkadian texts, and not all Akkadian signs are used in Hittite. Falkenstein lists signs used in the earliest period late Uruk34th to 31st centuries. See Bibliography for the works mentioned in this paragraph.

The Sumerians used a numerical system based on 1, 10, and The way of writing a number like 70 would be the sign for 60 and the sign for 10 right after. Cuneiform script was used in many ways in ancient Mesopotamia. It was used to record laws, like the Code of Hammurabi. It was also used for recording maps, compiling medical manuals, and documenting religious stories and beliefs, among other uses.

According to the Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture[81] cuneiform script was used at a variety of literacy levels: average citizens needed only a basic, functional knowledge of cuneiform script to write personal letters and business documents.

More highly literate citizens put the script to more technical use, listing medicines and diagnoses and writing mathematical equations. Scholars held the highest literacy level of cuneiform and mostly focused on writing as a complex skill and an art form.

As of version 8. The final proposal for Unicode encoding of the script was submitted by two cuneiform scholars working with an experienced Unicode proposal writer in June Rather than opting for a direct ordering by glyph shape and complexity, according to the numbering of an existing catalog, the Unicode order of glyphs was based on the Latin alphabetic order of their "last" Sumerian transliteration as a practical approximation.

The Sea Peoples were seaborne foes [13][14][15] from different origins [6][12]. They launched a combined land-sea invasion Fig. The Sea Peoples symbolize the last step of a long and complex spiral of decline in the ancient Mediterranean world [2][3][4][5].

Cuneiform tablets from Ugarit provide an impressive glimpse of the frantic preparations which the city and her neighbours pursued, in vain, to ward against the invasions [2]. Within the conventional view, the Sea Peoples are linked in history to the collapse of the Late Bronze Age cultures [4]and BC stands as a symbolic date in human civilization.

Some of the major cities impacted by the raids are denoted with historical dates. Inland invasions are represented by purple arrows. Whereas the Sea People event constitutes a major turning point in ancient world history, attested by both written and archaeological e. Ugarit, Enkomi, Kition, Byblos evidence, our knowledge of when these waves of destructions occurred rests on translation of cuneiform tablets preceding the invasions terminus ante quem and on Ramses III's reign terminus post quem.

Here, we report the first absolute chronology of the invasion from a rare, well-preserved Sea People destruction layer Fig. The destruction layer contains remains of conflicts bronze arrowheads scattered around the town, fallen walls, burnt housesash from the conflagration of houses, and chronologically well-constrained ceramic assemblages fragmented by the collapse of the town.

This stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology, with anchor points in ancient epigraphic-literary sources, Hittite-Levantine-Egyptian kings and astronomical observations, was used to precisely date the Sea People invasion in northern Levant, a decisive episode in a long-term collapse of the ancient Eastern Mediterranean world. By confronting historical and science-based archaeology, the data offer the first firm chronology for this key period in human society.

The picture B shows the Sea People destruction layer with ashes, stone rubbles from fallen walls, and ceramic fragments.

The 13th century BC witnessed the zenith of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean civilizations which declined at the end of the Bronze Age, ? years ago. Weakening of this ancient flourishing Mediterranean world shifted the political and economic centres of gravity away from the Levant towards Classical Greece and Rome, and led, in the long term, to the emergence of the modern western.

Sample collection for radiocarbon 14 C dating of the Sea People event was performed at the harbour town Gibala [17][18][19]a thriving Levantine trade center located at the southernmost edge of the powerful Ugarit kingdom [20][21].

Direct access from the Mediterranean to the Syrian heartland, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia afforded the ports of the Ugarit kingdom their wealth. This strategic position sets the chronology obtained for the destruction of Gibala by the Sea Peoples in a Mediterranean-wide perspective for the end of the Late Bronze Age Fig.

The place name Gibala appears on two 14 th century BC cuneiform tablets from Ugarit [17]. The written Bronze Age sources or epigraphic finds for Gibala cease as soon as Ugarit was destroyed by the Sea Peoples.

Cuneiform dating

S1 Supporting Information S1. A stable water supply, provided by the northern Rumailiah River and the southern Ain Fawar spring-complex, may explain resettlements on the Gibala's alluvial plain since the Early Iron Age [10]. The widespread ash layer, termed Level 7A, contained rich finds Fig. White slip II highly significant for the Sea People event in the ancient Mediterranean world [17][18]. Short-lived samples and young branches found in the destruction debris from eight key loci Fig.

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S2 were dated by accelerator mass spectrometry AMS. Calibrated age ranges in details at Hence, there are two chronological possibilities for the calibrated date of the destruction Level 7A, between the end of the 13 th century and the beginning of the 12 th century BC or the first half of the 12 th century BC. By contrasting historical-archaeological and radiocarbon-based data sets, the best candidate for the destruction date of the harbour town is the Sea People invasion.

Their presence immediately after the destruction of Gibala is indicated by the material culture of the new settlements on the Tell namely the appearance of Aegean-type architecture, locally-made Mycenaean IIIC Early pottery, hand-made burnished pottery, and Aegean-type loam-weights. These materials, also known from Philistine settlements [24]are cultural markers of foreign settlers, most probably the Sea Peoples. Ceramics and arrowheads were retrieved from the destruction Level 7A.

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The 14 C weighted average value and calibrations provide a robust chronological framework for the Sea People event. The horizontal scale is in historical years BC. The vertical scale is in conventional radiocarbon years BP.

The internal consistency of the typical imported ceramic assemblage found in the destruction layer Fig. All the Mycenaean imports ended in the region of the Ugarit kingdom with its destruction by the Sea Peoples who interrupted trade routes. These letters demonstrate that Ugarit was still a kingdom at the very end of the 13 th century BC but also relate that its territory was threatened by seaborne and land invasions Fig.

The cuneiform tablet RS A document from Egypt relating the execution of Bay as a traitor in Siptah's regnal year 5, states that the cuneiform tablet RS The radiocarbon results, in relation to archaeological and historical data, lead us to propose a date of - BC for the Sea People event in the northern Levant. This radiocarbon-based archaeological date can be refined with the astronomical observation related on the cuneiform tablet KTU 1.

The sun eclipse depicted on the cuneiform tablet KTU 1. The date of - BC for the Sea People invasions in the northern Levant, and the end of the ancient Eastern Mediterranean world fits the radiocarbon, historical, archaeological and astronomical data.

Our research suggests that the traditional Egyptian date for the decline of the ancient Mediterranean world, based on sources from Ramses III's reign, only corresponds to the final part of a more complex and longer-term event that intensified after BC with the first written evidence of food shortage [6][7][8].

By a combined use of radiocarbon, archaeological and historical data, the first firm date of - BC is proposed for the terminal destruction and disintegration of Late Bronze Age societies in the Northern Levant. The collapse caused by the Sea Peoples marks a historical watershed and from these crisis years arose a new world.

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Later, the Greeks narrated and heroised this period with the myths and stories on the fall of Troy Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. Some of the Sea Peoples, the Philistines [12]received a significant recognition in Biblical texts [34]and the name Palestine derives from these settlers.

Quality control on sample collection for 14 C measurements was undertaken during excavations. Only samples originating in reliable contexts with clear association to meaningful ceramic assemblages and occupation levels were used. Samples were selected from primary contexts in Maywith an emphasis placed on short-lived samples seeds or olive stones Fig. S2 and young branches Fig. All botanical macro-remains were sampled from the Middle-Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age II layers and subsequently determined using optical and scanning electron microscopes Fig.

The weighted average value for the fire event termed Level 7A results from multiple measurements of the same ash layer from different key loci. The weighted average value was calibrated using Calib. The carbon dating results provide a chronological framework for the Early Iron Age in the Northern Levant.

Scanning electron microscopy pictures showing the Sea People event burnt macro-remains of short-lived samples Olea europaeaBrassica oleracea and branch Olea europaea with the associated calibrated radiocarbon date. The scale for each macro-remain is denoted on the pictures.

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Calibrated calendar age probability distributions for the samples from the Levels 7D and 6E. The author would like to thank Prof. Hendrik J.



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